Impressions of the North Cascades
Essays about a Northwest Landscape
Keepers of the Beat, Jon L. Riedel
1. Colin Fletcher, The Man Who
Walked Through Time (New York: Vintage Books, 1967).
2. J. Imbrie and K. P Imbrie,
Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery (Short Hills, N.J.: Enslow
3. R. B. Waitt and R. M. Thorson,
"The Cordilleran Ice Sheet in Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana," in
S. C. Porter, ed., Late Quaternary Environments of the United States,
Vol. 1 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983), pp.
4. E. C. Pielov, After the Ice
Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1991).
5. S. R. Hicock, K. Hobson, and J.
E. Armstrong, "Late Pleistocene Proboscideans and Early Fraser Glacial
Sedimentation in Eastern Fraser Lowland, British Columbia," in
Canadian Journal of Earth Science 19 (1982): 899-906.
6. J.J. Clague, "Late Quaternary
Geology and Geochronology of British Columbia, Part Two: Summary and
Discussion of Radiocarbon-dated Quaternary History," in Geological
Survey of Canada Paper 80, 35 (1981).
7. Donald J. Easterbrook,
"Stratigraphy and Chronology of Pleistocene Sediments," in D. A.
Swanson and R. A. Haugerud, eds., Geological Fieldtrips in the
Pacific Northwest (Proceedings from the Geological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Seattle, 1994).
8. Jon L. Riedel and R. A.
Haugerud, "Glacial Rearrangement of Drainage in the Northern North
Cascades, Washington," in Geological Society of America Meeting
Abstract 8982 (1994).
9. Jon L. Riedel, "Existing
Conditions of Reservoir and Streambank Erosion in the Skagit River
Hydroelectric Project" (Unpublished Report, North Cascades National Park,
National Park Service, Sedro Woolley, Wash., 1989); and J. J. Clague, J.
E. Armstrong, and W. H. Mathews, "Advance of the Late Wisconsin
Cordilleran Ice Sheet in Southern British Columbia Since 22,000 Years B.
P.," in Quaternary Research 13(1980): 322-326.
10. M. B. Davis, "Quaternary
History and the Stability of Plant Communities," in D. C. West, H. H.
Shugart, and D. B. Botkin, eds., Forest Succession: Concepts and
Application (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981), pp. 312-353.
11. S. R. Hicock and J. R. Goff,
"Geohazard Risk Assessment of the Klesilkwa Basin" (Report to the Skagit
Environmental Endowment Commission, 1993).
12. J. H. Mackin, "Glaciology of
the Snoqualmie-Cedar Area, Washington," Journal of Geology
49(1941): 449-481; D. R. Crandall, "Surficial Geology and Geomorphology
of the Lake Tapps Quadrangle, Washington" (U.S. Geological
Survey Professional Paper 388-A, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1963); S. C. Porter, "Pleistocene Glaciation in the Southern
Part of the North Cascade Range, Washington," in Geological Society
of America Bulletin 87 (1976): 61-75; R. B. Waitt, "Late
Pleistocene Alpine Glaciers and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet at Washington
Pass, North Cascade Range, Washington," in Arctic and Alpine
Research 7 (1975): 25-32.
13. S. C. Porter, "Present and
Past Glaciation Threshold in the Cascade Range, Washington, U.S.A.,
Topographic and Climatic Controls, and Paleoclimatic Implications," in
Journal of Glaciology 18 (1977): 101-116.
14. R. B. Waitt, "Evolution of the
Glaciated Topography of the Upper Skagit Drainage Basin, Washington,"
in Arctic and Alpine Research 9 (1977): 183-192.
15. N. M. Fenneman,
Physiography of the Western United States (New York: McGraw-Hill,
16. S. C. Porter and G. Denton,
"Chronology of Neoglaciation in the North American Cordillera," in
American Journal of Science 265 (1967): 117-210.
17. S. C. Porter, "Pattern and
Forcing of Northern Hemisphere Glacier Variations During the Last
Millennium," in Quaternary Research 26 (1986): 27-48.
18. R. A. Daly, "Geology of the
49th Parallel," in Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 38
19. Jon L. Riedel, "Chronology of
Late Neoglacial Glacier Recessions in the Cascade Range and the
Deposition of a Recent Esker in the North Cascade Mountains, Washington"
(Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1987).
20. W. V. Tang-born, "Two Models
for Estimating Climate-Glacier Relationships in the North Cascades,
Washington, U.S.A.," in Journal of Glaciology 25 (1980):
Who Walks on the Ground, Bob Mierendorf
1. For the only published account
of Custer's notes and records, see Harry M. Majors, "Discovery of Mount
Shuksan and the Upper Nooksack River," in Northwest Discovery 5,
21 (1984) and "First Crossing of the Picket Range 1859," in
Northwest Discovery 5, 22 (1984).
2. Martin J. Sampson, "Indians of
Skagit County," in Skagit County Historical Series No. 2 (Mount
Vernon, Wash.: Skagit County Historical Society, 1972).
3. See Harry M. Majors, "The First
Crossing of the North Cascades," in Northwest Discovery
4. George Gibbs, "Tribes of
Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon," in Contributions to
North American Ethnology 1, 169 (1877).
5. G. P. V. and Helen B. Akrigg,
British Columbia Place Names (Victoria, B.C.: Sono Nis Press,
6. Robert R. Mierendorf, "Chert
Procurement in the Upper Skagit River Valley of the Northern Cascade
Range, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, Washington" (Technical
Report NPS/PNRNOCA/CRTR-93-001, North Cascades National Park Service
Complex, Sedro Woolley, Wash., 1993).
7. Helmut K. Buechner, "Some
Biotic Changes in the State of Washington During 1853-1953," in
Research Studies of the State College of Washington 21(1953); and
Carl E. Gustafson, et al., "The Manis Mastodon Site: Early Man on the
Olympic Peninsula," in Canadian Journal of Archeology 3(1979):
8. Most of the information about
Holocene vegetation in this section is from Cathy Whitlock,
"Vegetational and Climatic History of the Pacific Northwest during the
Last 20,000 Years: Implications for Understanding Present-day Biodiversity,"
in The Northwest Environmental Journal 8, 1(1992):
9. Jan L. Hollenbeck and Susan L.
Carter, "A Cultural Resources Overview: Prehistory and Ethnography,
Wenatchee National Forest" (Paper written for U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, 1986).
10. Whitlock, 5-28.
11. Gibbs, 220.
12. Henry H. Pierce, "An Army
Expedition Across the North Cascades in August 1882," edited by Harry M.
Majors in Northwest Discovery 3,1(1980): 68.
A Home for the Spirits: An Interview with Vi
1. Vi Hilbert, Haboo
(Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1985).
2. Janet Koder, ed., Writings
About Vi Hilbert (Seattle: Lushotseed Press, 1992).
3. Annie Dillard, The
Living (New York: Harper Collins, 1992).
4. Wayne Suttles, West Coast
Salish Essays (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987).
5. June M. Collins, Valley of
the Spirits: The Upper Skagit Indians (Seattle: University of
Washington Press, 1974).
6. Nels Bruseth, Indian Stories
and Legends of the Stillaguamish, Sauks and Allied Tribes
(Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1977).
7. Her parents belonged to the
Indian Shaker Church.
8. Her father was born circa
9. Ilabot Creek flows from the
south into the Skagit between Rockport and Marblemount; Hamilton is 15
miles east of Sedro Woolley.
10. Baker Hot Springs north of
11. Susie Sampson Peter, Upper
Beaver Is Greedy, Charles Luckmann
1. See Nch'i-wana, "The Big River"
in Eugene S. Hunn and James Selam and Family, Mid-Columbian Indians
and Their Land (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990), pp.
2. David Wagoner, Who Shall Be
the Sun?: Poems Based on the Lore, Legends, and Myths of Northwest Coast
and Plateau Indians (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978),
Cascade River: 1974-1996, Bob Keller
1. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County
Almanac (New York: Oxford University Press, 1949), pp. viii, 67,
2. Simon Schama, Landscape and
Memory (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995), pp. 576-578.
3. Quoted in Rudolf Walter
Leonhardt, This Germany: The Story Since the Third Reich
(Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1964), p. 161.
4. Skagit Co. Comprehensive Plan,
section 2; Skagit Co. Planning Dept. Finding of Fact, American Alps
Resort, Dec. 7, 1994, Appl. No. SPU 93-033; Robert C. Schofield, Hearing
Examiner, Decision and Order, April 26, 1995; U.S. Forest Service, Mt.
Baker District, Jon Vanderheyden memo, January 20, 1994. The National
Park Service, sensitive to "buffer" and border issues, remained silent
during this dispute even though its policy is "to encourage and help
people enjoy their natural surroundings free from the distractions of
mechanized equipment and imposing structures" (NPS General Management
Plan: North Cascades National Park, 1988, pp. 19, 23).
5. In Western Washington timber
harvest as a whole increased seventy percent from 1950 to 1975, with
record years in the 1980s up fifty percent over the 1975 rate. Numbers
dropped with the recession of the early 1980s, rebounded in mid-decade,
and declined again in the 1990s, but not below 1950 levels. See State of
Washington, Department of Natural Resources (DNR), "Timber Harvest
Summaries, 1975-93," and "Timber Harvest by Ownership, 1950-93"
(WA DNR, Natural Resources Building, Olympia, Wash.). Forest managers
currently can not provide statistics by watershed: "The only way we
track board feet is by county. We don't have any particular need for the
watershed data" (Interviews, Jeff May, DNR; Ed Johnson, USFS; Keith
Wyman, Skagit System Co-op; Jim Cahill, Skagit County Planning, January
6. Gretchen A. Luxenberg,
Historic Resource Study: North Cascade National Park (Seattle:
National Park Service, 1986), pp. 72-81; Fay Davis, Marblemount
of the North Cascades (Privately Published, 1988).
7. Larry J. Kunzler, Skagit
River Valley: the Disaster Waiting To Happen (Privately Published,
1992). See pp. 22-23 for a chronology of discharge volume and river
8. Estate of Claire Wilson, et al.
v. Georgia Pacific and the State of Washington, Skagit Co. Case No.
86-2-00164-9 (Interview, Dean Brett, January 11, 1996).
9. The maximum clearcut on private
lands is 240 acres, but different owners can log adjacent to each other.
New cuts may begin after five years or if trees on harvested areas
average four feet high; clearcuts of less than 5.0 percent do not
require replanting. Most private land in the Skagit system is owned by
The Trillium Corporation or Crown Pacific, successors to Georgia Pacific
and Scott Paper.
10. Schama, Landscape and
Memory, pp. 191-201.
11. State of Washington Department
of Natural Resources, "Timber Harvest by Ownership, 1950-93."
12. Schama, Landscape and
Memory, p. 574.
13. Alexander Ross, The Fur
Hunters of the Far West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press,
1956), p. 39.
14. Wendell Berry, "The River
Bridged and Forgot," in The Wheel (San Francisco: North Point
Sitec and Tomorrow in the North Cascades,
1. Sam D. Gill and Irene E
Sullivan, Dictionary of Native American Mythology (Santa Barbara:
2. Ibid. p. 275.
3. The Bellingham Herald,
14 November, 1995.
5. Fiscal Year 1995 Funding Report
from North Cascades National Park, January 8, 1996; Bob Kuntz, North
Cascades National Park Wildlife Biologist (Interview, October 26,
6. Scott Brennan, "Controversial
Activist in Uproar over Park Plan," in The Bellingham Herald, 13
November, 1994, A: 1.
7. USDI, National Park Service,
North Cascades National Park complex, "State of the Stephen Mather
Wilderness, 1994" (Sedro Woolley, Wash., 1994), 4-4.
8. Ibid. 4-8.
9. Ibid. 4-8.
10. Ibid. 4-7.
11. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz,
Theodicy (orig. pub. 1710), ed. Austin Farrer (London: Routledge
and Kegan Paul, 1951), p. 118.
12. J. A. Almack, W. L. Gaines, R.
H. Naney, P. H. Morrison, J. R. Eby, G. F. Wooten, M. C. Snyder, S. H.
Fitkin, and E. R. Garcia, North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem
Evaluation; Final Report (Unpublished Report, Interagency Grizzly
Bear Committee, Denver, Colo., 1993).
14. Ibid. pp. 1-4.
15. Ibid. pp. 1-4.
16. Ibid. p. 21.
Wild Speculations, John C. Miles
1. Charles Finley Easton, "Mount
Baker: Its Trails and Legends," Whatcom Museum of History and Art,
Bellingham (Unpublished Scrapbook, compiled 1903-1930), p. 42.
2. Nancy Langston, Forest
Dreams, Forest Nightmares: The Paradox of Old Growth in the Inland
West (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995), p. 306.
3. David Raines Wallace, The
Klamath Knot (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1983), p. 132.
4. Barry Lopez, The Rediscovery
of North America (Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky,
5. Statutes at Large of the United
States, 17, 32, Forty-second Congress, Second Session, February
6. Statutes at Large of the United
States, 39:535, Sixty-fourth Congress, First Session, August 25,
7. Linda Hogan, Dwellings: A
Spiritual History of the Living World (New York: WW Norton, 1995),
Other titles you may enjoy from The Mountaineers:
LOOKOUTS: Firewatchers of the Cascades and Olympics,
Ira Spring & Byron Fish
An inspiring history of the fire-protection lookouts
built and manned over a thirty-year period, and of the people who
endured formidable conditions to make them a reality.
JOHN MUIR: His Life and Letters and Other Writings,
Terry Gifford, Editor
This second Muir omnibus, a companion to John
Muir: The Eight Wilderness-Discovery Books, gives readers a fresh
and vivid portrait of the world's most influential conservationist.
MONTE CRISTO, Philip R. Woodhouse
The complete story of the Monte Cristo region of the
Cascades during the search for gold and silver in its fabled mines in
the late 1800s and early 1900s.
SNOQUALMIE PASS: From Indian Trail to Interstate,
Colorful history of the Washington Cascades pass.
Published in conjunction with the Mountains to Sound Greenway Trust.
STEVENS PASS: The Story of Railroading and Recreation
in the North Cascades, JoAnn Roe
Covers the exploration and development of rails and
roads to scenic and recreational areas in this region of Washington
EXPLORING WASHINGTON'S WILD AREAS: A Guide for
Hikers, Backpackers, Climbers, X-C Skiers, & Paddlers, Marge
& Ted Mueller
Guide to 55 wilderness areas with outstanding
recreational opportunities, plus notes on history, geology, plants,
animals, and wildlife.
HIKING THE MOUNTAINS TO SOUND GREENWAY, Harvey
Manning Recreational walks and all-day hikes along Puget Sound's
Includes the history, founding, and future of the
THE IRON GOAT TRAIL, Volunteers for Outdoor
Washington, USDA Forest Service, & Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National
History-filled walking guide to the first railroad
route across the Cascades.
100 HIKES IN WASHINGTON'S GLACIER PEAK REGION: The
North Cascades, 2nd Ed., Ira Spring & Harvey Manning
100 HIKES IN WASHINGTON'S NORTH CASCADES NATIONAL
PARK REGION, 2nd Ed., Ira Spring & Harvey Manning
100 HIKES IN WASHINGTON'S ALPINE LAKES, 2nd Ed.,
Ira Spring & Harvey Manning