Table of Contents


General Introduction


Impressions of the North Cascades
Essays about a Northwest Landscape


Keepers of the Beat, Jon L. Riedel

1. Colin Fletcher, The Man Who Walked Through Time (New York: Vintage Books, 1967).

2. J. Imbrie and K. P Imbrie, Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery (Short Hills, N.J.: Enslow Publishers, 1979).

3. R. B. Waitt and R. M. Thorson, "The Cordilleran Ice Sheet in Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana," in S. C. Porter, ed., Late Quaternary Environments of the United States, Vol. 1 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983), pp. 54-70.

4. E. C. Pielov, After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

5. S. R. Hicock, K. Hobson, and J. E. Armstrong, "Late Pleistocene Proboscideans and Early Fraser Glacial Sedimentation in Eastern Fraser Lowland, British Columbia," in Canadian Journal of Earth Science 19 (1982): 899-906.

6. J.J. Clague, "Late Quaternary Geology and Geochronology of British Columbia, Part Two: Summary and Discussion of Radiocarbon-dated Quaternary History," in Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80, 35 (1981).

7. Donald J. Easterbrook, "Stratigraphy and Chronology of Pleistocene Sediments," in D. A. Swanson and R. A. Haugerud, eds., Geological Fieldtrips in the Pacific Northwest (Proceedings from the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, 1994).

8. Jon L. Riedel and R. A. Haugerud, "Glacial Rearrangement of Drainage in the Northern North Cascades, Washington," in Geological Society of America Meeting Abstract 8982 (1994).

9. Jon L. Riedel, "Existing Conditions of Reservoir and Streambank Erosion in the Skagit River Hydroelectric Project" (Unpublished Report, North Cascades National Park, National Park Service, Sedro Woolley, Wash., 1989); and J. J. Clague, J. E. Armstrong, and W. H. Mathews, "Advance of the Late Wisconsin Cordilleran Ice Sheet in Southern British Columbia Since 22,000 Years B. P.," in Quaternary Research 13(1980): 322-326.

10. M. B. Davis, "Quaternary History and the Stability of Plant Communities," in D. C. West, H. H. Shugart, and D. B. Botkin, eds., Forest Succession: Concepts and Application (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981), pp. 312-353.

11. S. R. Hicock and J. R. Goff, "Geohazard Risk Assessment of the Klesilkwa Basin" (Report to the Skagit Environmental Endowment Commission, 1993).

12. J. H. Mackin, "Glaciology of the Snoqualmie-Cedar Area, Washington," Journal of Geology 49(1941): 449-481; D. R. Crandall, "Surficial Geology and Geomorphology of the Lake Tapps Quadrangle, Washington" (U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 388-A, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963); S. C. Porter, "Pleistocene Glaciation in the Southern Part of the North Cascade Range, Washington," in Geological Society of America Bulletin 87 (1976): 61-75; R. B. Waitt, "Late Pleistocene Alpine Glaciers and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet at Washington Pass, North Cascade Range, Washington," in Arctic and Alpine Research 7 (1975): 25-32.

13. S. C. Porter, "Present and Past Glaciation Threshold in the Cascade Range, Washington, U.S.A., Topographic and Climatic Controls, and Paleoclimatic Implications," in Journal of Glaciology 18 (1977): 101-116.

14. R. B. Waitt, "Evolution of the Glaciated Topography of the Upper Skagit Drainage Basin, Washington," in Arctic and Alpine Research 9 (1977): 183-192.

15. N. M. Fenneman, Physiography of the Western United States (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1931).

16. S. C. Porter and G. Denton, "Chronology of Neoglaciation in the North American Cordillera," in American Journal of Science 265 (1967): 117-210.

17. S. C. Porter, "Pattern and Forcing of Northern Hemisphere Glacier Variations During the Last Millennium," in Quaternary Research 26 (1986): 27-48.

18. R. A. Daly, "Geology of the 49th Parallel," in Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 38 (1912).

19. Jon L. Riedel, "Chronology of Late Neoglacial Glacier Recessions in the Cascade Range and the Deposition of a Recent Esker in the North Cascade Mountains, Washington" (Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1987).

20. W. V. Tang-born, "Two Models for Estimating Climate-Glacier Relationships in the North Cascades, Washington, U.S.A.," in Journal of Glaciology 25 (1980): 3-21.

Who Walks on the Ground, Bob Mierendorf

1. For the only published account of Custer's notes and records, see Harry M. Majors, "Discovery of Mount Shuksan and the Upper Nooksack River," in Northwest Discovery 5, 21 (1984) and "First Crossing of the Picket Range 1859," in Northwest Discovery 5, 22 (1984).

2. Martin J. Sampson, "Indians of Skagit County," in Skagit County Historical Series No. 2 (Mount Vernon, Wash.: Skagit County Historical Society, 1972).

3. See Harry M. Majors, "The First Crossing of the North Cascades," in Northwest Discovery 1, 3(1980).

4. George Gibbs, "Tribes of Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon," in Contributions to North American Ethnology 1, 169 (1877).

5. G. P. V. and Helen B. Akrigg, British Columbia Place Names (Victoria, B.C.: Sono Nis Press, 1986).

6. Robert R. Mierendorf, "Chert Procurement in the Upper Skagit River Valley of the Northern Cascade Range, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, Washington" (Technical Report NPS/PNRNOCA/CRTR-93-001, North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Sedro Woolley, Wash., 1993).

7. Helmut K. Buechner, "Some Biotic Changes in the State of Washington During 1853-1953," in Research Studies of the State College of Washington 21(1953); and Carl E. Gustafson, et al., "The Manis Mastodon Site: Early Man on the Olympic Peninsula," in Canadian Journal of Archeology 3(1979): 157-163.

8. Most of the information about Holocene vegetation in this section is from Cathy Whitlock, "Vegetational and Climatic History of the Pacific Northwest during the Last 20,000 Years: Implications for Understanding Present-day Biodiversity," in The Northwest Environmental Journal 8, 1(1992): 5-28.

9. Jan L. Hollenbeck and Susan L. Carter, "A Cultural Resources Overview: Prehistory and Ethnography, Wenatchee National Forest" (Paper written for U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, 1986).

10. Whitlock, 5-28.

11. Gibbs, 220.

12. Henry H. Pierce, "An Army Expedition Across the North Cascades in August 1882," edited by Harry M. Majors in Northwest Discovery 3,1(1980): 68.

A Home for the Spirits: An Interview with Vi Hilbert

1. Vi Hilbert, Haboo (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1985).

2. Janet Koder, ed., Writings About Vi Hilbert (Seattle: Lushotseed Press, 1992).

3. Annie Dillard, The Living (New York: Harper Collins, 1992).

4. Wayne Suttles, West Coast Salish Essays (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987).

5. June M. Collins, Valley of the Spirits: The Upper Skagit Indians (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974).

6. Nels Bruseth, Indian Stories and Legends of the Stillaguamish, Sauks and Allied Tribes (Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1977).

7. Her parents belonged to the Indian Shaker Church.

8. Her father was born circa 1880.

9. Ilabot Creek flows from the south into the Skagit between Rockport and Marblemount; Hamilton is 15 miles east of Sedro Woolley.

10. Baker Hot Springs north of Concrete, Washington.

11. Susie Sampson Peter, Upper Skagit tribe.

Beaver Is Greedy, Charles Luckmann

1. See Nch'i-wana, "The Big River" in Eugene S. Hunn and James Selam and Family, Mid-Columbian Indians and Their Land (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990), pp. 156-157.

2. David Wagoner, Who Shall Be the Sun?: Poems Based on the Lore, Legends, and Myths of Northwest Coast and Plateau Indians (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), p. 97.

Cascade River: 1974-1996, Bob Keller

1. Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac (New York: Oxford University Press, 1949), pp. viii, 67, 216.

2. Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995), pp. 576-578.

3. Quoted in Rudolf Walter Leonhardt, This Germany: The Story Since the Third Reich (Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1964), p. 161.

4. Skagit Co. Comprehensive Plan, section 2; Skagit Co. Planning Dept. Finding of Fact, American Alps Resort, Dec. 7, 1994, Appl. No. SPU 93-033; Robert C. Schofield, Hearing Examiner, Decision and Order, April 26, 1995; U.S. Forest Service, Mt. Baker District, Jon Vanderheyden memo, January 20, 1994. The National Park Service, sensitive to "buffer" and border issues, remained silent during this dispute even though its policy is "to encourage and help people enjoy their natural surroundings free from the distractions of mechanized equipment and imposing structures" (NPS General Management Plan: North Cascades National Park, 1988, pp. 19, 23).

5. In Western Washington timber harvest as a whole increased seventy percent from 1950 to 1975, with record years in the 1980s up fifty percent over the 1975 rate. Numbers dropped with the recession of the early 1980s, rebounded in mid-decade, and declined again in the 1990s, but not below 1950 levels. See State of Washington, Department of Natural Resources (DNR), "Timber Harvest Summaries, 1975-93," and "Timber Harvest by Ownership, 1950-93" (WA DNR, Natural Resources Building, Olympia, Wash.). Forest managers currently can not provide statistics by watershed: "The only way we track board feet is by county. We don't have any particular need for the watershed data" (Interviews, Jeff May, DNR; Ed Johnson, USFS; Keith Wyman, Skagit System Co-op; Jim Cahill, Skagit County Planning, January 17, 1996).

6. Gretchen A. Luxenberg, Historic Resource Study: North Cascade National Park (Seattle: National Park Service, 1986), pp. 72-81; Fay Davis, Marblemount of the North Cascades (Privately Published, 1988).

7. Larry J. Kunzler, Skagit River Valley: the Disaster Waiting To Happen (Privately Published, 1992). See pp. 22-23 for a chronology of discharge volume and river levels.

8. Estate of Claire Wilson, et al. v. Georgia Pacific and the State of Washington, Skagit Co. Case No. 86-2-00164-9 (Interview, Dean Brett, January 11, 1996).

9. The maximum clearcut on private lands is 240 acres, but different owners can log adjacent to each other. New cuts may begin after five years or if trees on harvested areas average four feet high; clearcuts of less than 5.0 percent do not require replanting. Most private land in the Skagit system is owned by The Trillium Corporation or Crown Pacific, successors to Georgia Pacific and Scott Paper.

10. Schama, Landscape and Memory, pp. 191-201.

11. State of Washington Department of Natural Resources, "Timber Harvest by Ownership, 1950-93."

12. Schama, Landscape and Memory, p. 574.

13. Alexander Ross, The Fur Hunters of the Far West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956), p. 39.

14. Wendell Berry, "The River Bridged and Forgot," in The Wheel (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982).

Sitec and Tomorrow in the North Cascades, Scott Brennan

1. Sam D. Gill and Irene E Sullivan, Dictionary of Native American Mythology (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 1992).

2. Ibid. p. 275.

3. The Bellingham Herald, 14 November, 1995.

4. Ibid.

5. Fiscal Year 1995 Funding Report from North Cascades National Park, January 8, 1996; Bob Kuntz, North Cascades National Park Wildlife Biologist (Interview, October 26, 1995).

6. Scott Brennan, "Controversial Activist in Uproar over Park Plan," in The Bellingham Herald, 13 November, 1994, A: 1.

7. USDI, National Park Service, North Cascades National Park complex, "State of the Stephen Mather Wilderness, 1994" (Sedro Woolley, Wash., 1994), 4-4.

8. Ibid. 4-8.

9. Ibid. 4-8.

10. Ibid. 4-7.

11. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Theodicy (orig. pub. 1710), ed. Austin Farrer (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1951), p. 118.

12. J. A. Almack, W. L. Gaines, R. H. Naney, P. H. Morrison, J. R. Eby, G. F. Wooten, M. C. Snyder, S. H. Fitkin, and E. R. Garcia, North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem Evaluation; Final Report (Unpublished Report, Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee, Denver, Colo., 1993).

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid. pp. 1-4.

15. Ibid. pp. 1-4.

16. Ibid. p. 21.

Wild Speculations, John C. Miles

1. Charles Finley Easton, "Mount Baker: Its Trails and Legends," Whatcom Museum of History and Art, Bellingham (Unpublished Scrapbook, compiled 1903-1930), p. 42.

2. Nancy Langston, Forest Dreams, Forest Nightmares: The Paradox of Old Growth in the Inland West (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995), p. 306.

3. David Raines Wallace, The Klamath Knot (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1983), p. 132.

4. Barry Lopez, The Rediscovery of North America (Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1990).

5. Statutes at Large of the United States, 17, 32, Forty-second Congress, Second Session, February 1872.

6. Statutes at Large of the United States, 39:535, Sixty-fourth Congress, First Session, August 25, 1916.

7. Linda Hogan, Dwellings: A Spiritual History of the Living World (New York: WW Norton, 1995), p. 120.

Other titles you may enjoy from The Mountaineers:

LOOKOUTS: Firewatchers of the Cascades and Olympics, Ira Spring & Byron Fish

An inspiring history of the fire-protection lookouts built and manned over a thirty-year period, and of the people who endured formidable conditions to make them a reality.

JOHN MUIR: His Life and Letters and Other Writings, Terry Gifford, Editor

This second Muir omnibus, a companion to John Muir: The Eight Wilderness-Discovery Books, gives readers a fresh and vivid portrait of the world's most influential conservationist.

MONTE CRISTO, Philip R. Woodhouse

The complete story of the Monte Cristo region of the Cascades during the search for gold and silver in its fabled mines in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

SNOQUALMIE PASS: From Indian Trail to Interstate, Yvonne Prater

Colorful history of the Washington Cascades pass. Published in conjunction with the Mountains to Sound Greenway Trust.

STEVENS PASS: The Story of Railroading and Recreation in the North Cascades, JoAnn Roe

Covers the exploration and development of rails and roads to scenic and recreational areas in this region of Washington State.

EXPLORING WASHINGTON'S WILD AREAS: A Guide for Hikers, Backpackers, Climbers, X-C Skiers, & Paddlers, Marge & Ted Mueller

Guide to 55 wilderness areas with outstanding recreational opportunities, plus notes on history, geology, plants, animals, and wildlife.

HIKING THE MOUNTAINS TO SOUND GREENWAY, Harvey Manning Recreational walks and all-day hikes along Puget Sound's I-90 corridor.

Includes the history, founding, and future of the Greenway project.

THE IRON GOAT TRAIL, Volunteers for Outdoor Washington, USDA Forest Service, & Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest

History-filled walking guide to the first railroad route across the Cascades.

100 HIKES IN WASHINGTON'S GLACIER PEAK REGION: The North Cascades, 2nd Ed., Ira Spring & Harvey Manning


100 HIKES IN WASHINGTON'S ALPINE LAKES, 2nd Ed., Ira Spring & Harvey Manning

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North Cascades Conservation Council
P.O. Box 95980
Seattle, WA 98145-2980